Glossary of Terms
Glossary Search Keys

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ActiveX
An application programming interface (API) that allows web browsers to download and execute Windows programs.

AntiVirus Software
Detects and removes computer viruses.

Applet
A small Java program which allows a file or Web page to display animation, calculators, sound effects or other interactive functions. (See also "Java")

ASCII
The "American Standard Code for Information Interchange" is basically a set of numbers that represent all the normal characters one would find on their keyboard. There are many variations on this theme used for different languages or other purposes. Text saved in ASCII (.txt) format can be read by all word processing programs on most platforms.


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Back / Forward
Buttons in most browsers' Tool Button Bar, upper left. BACK returns you to the document previously viewed. FORWARD goes to the next document, after you go BACK.

Bandwidth
The rate at which information travels through a network connection, usually measured in bits per second, kilobits (thousand bits) per second, or megabits (million bits) per second.

BBBOnLine
The Better Business Bureau's Online privacy seal program that certifies eligible Web sites, holding sites to baseline privacy standards. The program requires its licensees to implement certain fair information practices and to submit to various types of compliance monitoring in order to display a privacy seal on their Web sites.

Blacklist
A list of "bad" email addresses (spam) or inappropriate Web sites. Some filtering and blocking tools can be set up to prevent access to Web sites on the blacklist or to prevent email from addresses on the blacklist from entering your inbox.

Blocking software
Computer programs that filter content from the Internet and block access to some Web sites or content based on specified criteria.

BLOG or Web Log
A blog (short for "web log") is a type of web page that serves as a publicly accessible personal journal (or log) for an individual. Typically updated daily, blogs often reflect the personality of the author. Blog software usually has archives of old blogs, and is searchable. Frequently blogging software is used by web pages providing excellent information on many topics, although very frequently the content is personal and requires VERY careful evaluation.

Bookmark
A way for web browser users to mark a web page they want to return to later. (Also see Favorites)

Browse
To follow links in a page, to shop around in a page, exploring what's there, a bit like window shopping. The opposite of browsing a page is searching it. When you search a page, you find a search box, enter terms, and find all occurrences of the terms throughout the site. When you browse, you have to guess which words on the page pertain to your interests. Searching is usually more efficient, but sometimes you find things by browsing that you might not find because you might not think of the "right" term to search by.

Browser
A program that allows a user to find, view, hear, and interact with material on the World Wide Web. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer are examples of popular browsers.

Browser safe colors
The 216 colors that will not get dithered on monitors that only display 256 colors. A very large GIF that contains a complete list of browser safe colors is here.

Browser hijacker
A common spyware program that automatically changes your web browser's home page, even if you change it back.

Bulletin board
An area of a Web site where users can post messages for other users to read. In most cases, readers can contact the author of a bulletin board message by e-mail. (See also "chat," chat room," and "Discussion group")

Bundling
Most often, this refers to the inclusion of software components to complement a purchase of hardware. This term can also refer to the process by which some unwanted spyware can enter your computer, by surreptitiously downloading alongside other, more desirable downloads.


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Cache
A file on the hard drive in which a Web browser stores information such as addresses, text, and graphics from recently visited Web sites, making it easier and faster for the user to revisit a site.

Case Sensitive
Capital letters (upper case) retrieve only upper case. Most search tools are not case sensitive or only respond to initial capitals, as in proper names. It is always safe to key all lower case (no capitals), because lower case will always retrieve upper case.

CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
A server-side communication standard supported by all web servers for accessing external programs. Since HTML allows only one-way communication from the server, which is read by the web browser or client, CGI permits communication and interaction from the client to the server for two-way, dynamic web pages.

Chat
A feature offered by many online services or Web sites that allows participants to "chat" by typing messages which are displayed almost instantly on the screens of other participants who are using the chat room.

Chat room
The name given to a place or page in a Web site or online service where people can "chat" with each other by typing messages which are displayed almost instantly on the screens of others who are in the "chat room." Chat rooms are also called "online forums."

Client
Computer hardware or software used by an end user on a computer network or the Internet to query a remote server. A web browser is an example of client software.

Client-Server
A computing network in which the functions are divided between clients (or personal computers or terminals), and servers that store, process, and transmit the information.

Client-Side Program
A computer program that is downloaded from a server and executed or run using the end user's computer hardware. Java and JavaScript are examples of client-side programs.

Client-based filter
A software program that a user installs on his or her own computer to monitor Internet use, block access to specific types of material, prevent kids from accessing the Internet at certain times, or prevent kids from revealing personal information online.

Computer Information
Information about the computer system that the individual uses to access the network -- such as the IP number, domain name, browser type or operating system.

Consent
Explicit permission, given to a Web site by a visitor, to handle personal information in specified ways.

Content
The actual text of a communication or information sent. Includes text of e-mails, bulletin board postings, chat room communications, files and graphics. Content does not include routing information, the date, time, or subject of the message, or other transactional data.

Cookie
A unique string of letters and numbers that the web server stores in a file on your hard drive. This method is used by web designers to track visitors to a web site so the visitors do not have to enter the same information every time they go to a new page or revisit a site. For example, web designers use cookies to keep track of purchases a visitor wants to make while shopping through a web catalog. Cookies may work through a single visit to a web site, such as when tracking a shopping trip, or may be set to work through multiple sessions when a visitor returns to the site.


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Data Mining (also see Online Profiling)
The practice of compiling information about Internet users by tracking their motions through Web sites, recording the time they spend there, what links they clink on and other details that the company desires, usually for marketing purposes.

Default
A setting automatically chosen by a program or machine that remains until the user specifies another setting.

Demographic and Socioeconomic Data
Data about an individual's characteristics -- such as gender, age, and income.

Directories
Indexes of Web sites, organized by subject

Disclosure
Refers to companies' practice of making your personal information available to third parties, e.g., marketing lists, other organizations that provide similar services, etc.

Discussion group
Online area, like an electronic bulletin board, where users can read and add or "post" comments about a specific topic. Users can find discussion groups, also referred to as "discussion boards," for almost any topic. (See also "Newsgroups")

DHTML (Dynamic HTML)
The next generation of HTML, the language that specifies exactly how text and images will be displayed on a web page. Dynamic HTML, developed by Netscape and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is based entirely on industry-standard HTML and Java. New features in Dynamic HTML, such as absolute positioning, give designers and developers greater control over the look and feel of web pages.

Digital Certificates
The digital equivalent of positive identification, such as a driver's license. Issued by various certificate authorities, digital certificates are used to prove that a web site, or a visitor to a web site, is the entity or person they claim to be.

Digital Signatures
Digital signatures work just like paper-and-ink signatures, allowing document recipients to confirm the source of a document. Digital signatures are generated by digital certificates.

Dithering
When a color that is not browser safe is displayed, two browser safe colors are mixed (or alternated) to create the desired color. This is called dithering.

Domain name
Domain names are the alphabetic names used to refer to computers on the Internet. A Web site address, including a suffix such as .com, .org, .gov, or .edu. The suffix indicates what type of organization is hosting the site.

Download
To receive a copy of a file from another computer or web server using a modem.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
A means of accessing the Internet at very high speed using standard phone lines.

Dynamic
A web document that is created from a database in real-time or "on the fly" at the same time it is being viewed, providing a continuous flow of new information and giving visitors a new experience each time they visit the web site.

Dynamic IP Addressing
Allows users to automatically locate Internet or intranet sites.


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E-commerce (Electronic Commerce)
Conducting business online, including product display, online ordering, secure transactions and inventory management.

E-mail (Electronic Mail)
Messages sent through an electronic (computer) network to specific groups or individuals. Though e-mail is generally text, users can attach files that include graphics, sound, and video.

E-zine
An electronic magazine or newsletter delivered over the Internet via E-mail. A Web-zine is a web site that has a magazine format and is not e-mailed.

Encryption
A means of making data unreadable to everyone except the recipient of a message. Encryption is often used to make the transmission of credit card numbers secure for those who are shopping on the Internet.

End User Licensing Agreement
This refers to the information to which the computer user is referred in the context of downloading software. The "end user" is the person for whom software is ultimately designed.

Extranet
A specialized virtual community created by linking business groups via the World Wide Web. Similar to an intranet, an extranet includes outside vendors and uses web technology to facilitate inter business transactions, such as placing and checking orders, tracking merchandise, and making payments.


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Fair Information Practices
Privacy guidelines enumerated in the 1973 report released by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The principles, which include (1) Notice, (2) Choice, (3) Access, and (4) Security, have been developed and recognized by agencies in the US, Canada, and Europe.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
A list of facts about a specific subject. Usually presented in a question and answer format.

Favorites
In the Internet Explorer browser, a means to get back to a URL you like, similar to Netscape's Bookmarks.

File Sharing
Accessing files on one computer from a different computer

Filtered ISP
An Internet Service Provider (ISP) that sets criteria for determining content which is inappropriate for children, and automatically blocks subscriber access to that content. Parents and other caregivers who are choosing a filtered ISP should review the company's criteria for blocking, and make sure those criteria reflect their own values and judgments.

Filtering software
Software that screens information on the Internet and classifies its content. Some filtering software allows the user to block access to certain kinds of content.

Firewall
Computer hardware and/or software that limits access to a computer over a network or from an outside source. Used to prevent computer hackers from getting into a company's computer systems.

First Party Cookies
Cookies that are placed on the user's computer by the host domain of the Web site the user is visiting.

Flaming
Posting or sending a deliberately confrontational message via newsgroup, e-mail, etc., usually in response to a previous message.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol - A way of transferring files over the Internet from one computer to another.


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Gateway
A computer system for exchanging information across incompatible networks by translating between two dissimilar protocols. May also describe any mechanism that gives access to another, such as an ISP which acts as a gateway to the Internet.

GIF (Graphic Information File)
Originated by CompuServe as a way of keeping image files small for easier transport over networks. GIFs are the most widely used graphic file type because can be transparent or even animated. GIFs are limited to 256 colors and look best when using the 216 browser safe colors.


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Hacker
Someone who breaks into your computer (or into a network of computers) over the Internet.

Home page
The first page on a Web site, which introduces the site and provides the means of navigation.

Host
Computer that provides web-documents to clients or users. See also server.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
The coded format language used for creating hypertext documents on the World Wide Web and controlling how Web pages appear.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The standard language that computers connected to the World Wide Web use to communicate with each other.

Hyperlink
An image or portion of text on a Web page that is linked to another Web page, either on the same site or in another Web site. Clicking on the link will take the user to another Web page, or to another place on the same page. Words or phrases which serve as links are underlined, or appear in a different color, or both. Images that serve as links have a border around them, or they change the cursor to a little hand as it passes over them. (See also "Links")

Hypertext
On the World Wide Web, the feature, built into HTML, that allows a text area, image, or other object to become a "link" that retrieves another computer file (another Web page, image, sound file, or other document) on the Internet.


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ICANN
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, the non-profit international organization responsible for domain names management.

ICRA (Internet Content Rating Association)
An international, independent, non-profit organization which administers a rating system to identify potentially objectionable material included in rated Web sites.

IM (Instant Message)
Technology similar to that of chat rooms, which notifies a user when a friend is online, allowing them to "converse" by exchanging text messages.

IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol Version 4)
A network standard that allows users to manage email messages and folders from multiple locations and systems. Users can choose to store their messages on their own local computer (or client), or on a server.

Individual Profiling
Refers to a site's or service provider's use of personal data to create or build a record on the particular individual or computer for the purpose of compiling habits or personally identifiable information of that individual or computer.

Interactive Data
Data actively generated from or reflecting explicit interactions with a service provider through its site -- such as queries to a search engine or logs of account activity.

Internet
The "information superhighway" that is made possible by standard Transmission Control Protocols/Internet Protocols (TCP/IP). Originally developed for the U.S. military in 1969, it grew to include educational and research institutions. With the advent of Netscape Navigator, the arcane commands formerly used to access the Internet became unnecessary. The Internet includes the World Wide Web, Usenet user groups and newsgroups.

Intranet
A private network inside a company or organization, which uses software like that used on the Internet, but is for internal use only, and is not accessible to the public.

IP (Internet Protocol)
The computer language that allows computer programs to communicate over the Internet.

IP Address or IP Number
A set of four numbers, each between zero and 255, separated by periods (eg: 192.168.0.5). The IP address uniquely identifies a computer or other hardware device (such as a printer) on the Internet. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP address. If a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.

IPP (Internet Presence Provider)
A company that allows individuals or other companies to use their server space to host web sites. Nearly every ISP is an IPP, so you don't hear this term very often.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
A protocol and a program type that allows participants to "chat" online in a live forum that usually centers around a common interest. IRC is the earliest form of online chat.

ISDN - (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Digital telephony scheme that allows a user to connect to the Internet over standard phone lines at speeds higher than a 56K modem allows.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
A company that sells direct access to the Internet, most often through dialing a local phone number. Unlike some online services, ISPs provide little or no proprietary content or online services.


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JAVA
A network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to our computer or files. Using small Java programs (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks. We can expect to see a huge variety of features added to the Web using Java, since you can write a Java program to do almost anything a regular computer program can do, and then include that Java program in a Web page.

Javascript
A simple programming language developed by Netscape to enable greater interactivity in Web pages. It shares some characteristics with JAVA but is independent. It interacts with HTML, enabling dynamic content and motion.

JPG or JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
The second Internet graphic standard. JPEGs allow for a greater depth of color than GIF images. They can contain millions of colors with smaller file sizes than other formats. JPEGs can be compressed using various quality settings. The higher the compression, the smaller the file, but the lower the resulting quality.


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Keywords
A word that is entered into the search form or search "window" of an Internet search engine to search the Web for pages or sites about or including the keyword and information related to it.


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LAN ( Local Area Network)
A network of connected computers that are generally located near each other, such as in an office or company.

Leashed Cookies
Cookies sent only on requests for first party content. When requests for third party content is made, these cookies are suppressed

Link
A word, phrase, or image highlighted in a hypertext document to act as a navigation aid to related information. Links may be indicated with an underline, a color contrast, or a border.

Limitation Collection
The established principle that collection of personal data should be limited to information that is necessary to complete a transaction. For instance, an online service provider that requires you to provide a copy of your tax returns as a condition of becoming a subscriber obviously collects more information than it requires to process a membership. When " personally identifiable information" is not necessary to support the initial activity, users should have the opportunity to restrict or deny its collection.

Localization
The process of adapting a computer program for a specific international market, which includes translating the user interface into a foreign language, resizing dialog boxes to fit the new language, customizing features if necessary, and testing results to ensure that the original program still works.


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Meta-Search Engine
Search engines that automatically submit your keyword search to several other search tools, and retrieve results from all their databases. Convenient time-savers for relatively simple keyword searches (one or two keywords or phrases in " ").

Mailing list
An E-mail-based discussion forum dedicated to a topic of interest. Mailing lists are either publicly and privately maintained, and can either be moderated or unmoderated.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
A method of attaching multimedia files (images, audio, video) or an application to an email message, which would otherwise only be capable of transmitting ASCII characters. Most servers and email clients are now MIME compliant.

Modem
A hardware device that allows computers to communicate with each other by transmitting signals over telephone lines, enabling what is called "dial-up access." Modems come in different speeds. The higher the speed, the faster the data are transmitted. The fastest widely available modems are "56K" (or 56 kilobits per second).

Monitoring software
Software products that allow a parent or caregiver to monitor or track the Web sites or e-mail messages that a child visits or reads, without necessarily blocking access.

Multimedia
Information presented in more than one format, such as text, audio, video, graphics, and images.


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Newsgroups
Discussion groups on the Internet (not on the Web, which is only one area of the Internet). Newsgroups are classified by subject matter and do not necessarily deal with journalism or "news." Health, hobbies, celebrities, and cultural events are the subjects of many newsgroups. Participants in a newsgroup conduct discussions by posting messages for others to read, and responding to the messages posted by others.

Navigation
A system of hypertext paths set up on a Web page to enable visitors to find their way around the site.

Netiquette
The informal rules of Internet courtesy, enforced exclusively by other Internet users.

NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
The open Internet standard for newsgroup discussions. Allows users to access Internet newsgroups and integrate them with discussion forums.

Notice
Refers to data collector's disclosure of their information practices prior to collecting personal information from consumers.


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OECD Guidelines
Privacy Guidelines issued in late 1980 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Albeit broad, the OECD guidelines set up important standards for future governmental privacy rules; the guidelines underpin most current international agreements, national laws, and self-regulatory policies.

Online Contact Information
Information that allows an individual to be contacted or located on the Internet, such as the e-mail address. Often, this information is independent of the specific computer used to access the network.

Online Profiling
The practice of aggregating information about consumers' preferences and interests, gathered primarily by tracking their online movements and actions, with the purpose of creating targeted advertisement using the resulting profiles.

Online Privacy Alliance (OPA)
A group of more than 80 global corporations and associations that was created to lead and support industry self-regulatory initiatives to protect privacy.

Open Proxies
Many people share their Broadband Internet connection with multiple PDS with some form of proxy software. Some proxy software activates on both network interfaces which means that the proxy will be usable from a customer's internal network and from the Internet facing connection.

Operator
The person who is responsible for maintaining and running a Web site.

Opt-in
A policy for giving permission under which the user explicitly permits the Web site operator to either collect the information, use it in a specified manner and/or share it with others when such use or disclosure to third parties is unrelated to the purpose for which the information was collected. (See also "opt-out")

Opt-out
A policy under which the user's permission is implied unless the user explicitly requests that his/her information not be collected, used and/or shared when such use or disclosure to third parties is unrelated to the purpose for which the information was collected. (See also "opt-in")

Online Service
A company that allows computer users to connect to the Internet by dialing into its computers using a modem. Similar to ISPs, these services also offer features and online content available only to members.


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Peer-to-peer
Any network in which all the computers are of equal capacities and capabilities, as opposed to a client-server network, in which one machine is intended to serve the needs of others. File-sharing networks are generally constructed with a peer-to-peer (also known as P2P) architecture.

Persistent Cookies
Cookies that are discarded when they reach their defined expiration time.

Personally Identifiable Information
Information that can identify an individual user, such as name, home address, or e-mail address.

Personal Page
A web page created by an individual (as opposed to someone creating a page for an institution, business, organization, or other entity). Often personal pages contain valid and useful opinions, links to important resources, and significant facts. One of the greatest benefits of the Web is the freedom it as given almost anyone to put his or her ideas "out there." But frequently personal pages offer highly biased personal perspectives or ironical/satirical spoofs, which must be evaluated carefully. The presence in the page's URL of a personal name (such as "jbarker") and a ~ or % or the word "users" or "people" or "members" very frequently indicate a site offering personal pages.

PDF or .pdf or pdf file
Abbreviation for Portable Document Format, a file format developed by Adobe Systems, that is used to capture almost any kind of document with the formatting in the original. Viewing a PDF file requires Acrobat Reader, which is built into most browsers and can be downloaded free from Adobe.

Phishing
An identity theft scam in which criminals send out spam that imitates the look and language of legitimate correspondence from e-commerce sites. The fake messages generally link to Web sites which are similarly faked to look like the sites of the respected companies. On the sites, you are directed to enter your personal information for authentication or confirmation purposes. The information, when submitted, however, goes to the thieves, not to the "spoofed" company.

Physical Contact Information (versus Online Contact Information)
Information that allows an individual to be contacted or located in the physical world -- such as a telephone number or an address.

PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection)
Technology that allows Web browsers to read content ratings of Web sites. Content ratings are administered by the Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA), an independent, non-profit organization. (See also "ICRA" and "RSACi")

Platform for Privacy Preferences Project (P3P)
A set of software-writing guidelines developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the standard-setting body for the Web. P3P is designed to provide Internet users with a clear understanding of how personal information will be used by a particular Web site, empowering users to avoid sites that do not meet their privacy preferences.

PLUG-IN
A small piece of software that enriches a larger piece of software by adding features or functions. Plug-ins enable browsers to play audio and video.

POP3 (Post Office Protocol, version 3)
A POP3 server acts as your email Post Office. You use an email client to retrieve your mail to your local drive using the POP3 protocol.

Pop-up ads (or Pop-ups)
Term for unsolicited advertising that appears as its own browser window.

Popularity Ranking of search results
Some search engines rank the order in which search results appear primarily by how many other sites link to each page (a kind of popularity vote based on the assumption that other pages would create a link to the "best" pages). Google is the best example of this.

Posting
Sending a message to a discussion group or other public message area on the Internet. The message itself is called a "post."

Privacy Policy
The policy under which the company or organization operating a Web site handles the personal information collected about visitors to the site. Many Web site operators publish their privacy policy on their Web site. The policy usually includes a description of the personal information which is collected by the site, how the information will be used, with whom it will be shared, and whether the visitors have the option to exercise control over how their information will be used. All TRUSTe Web site licensees are required to post privacy statements.

Public Forums
Refers to digital entities such as bulletin boards, public directories, or commercial CD-ROM directories, where personal user data may be distributed by a site or a service provider.

Purchase Information
Information actively generated by the purchase of a product or service, including information about the method of payment.

Push
A software program that retrieves information from web sites and deposits a copy on the user's computer to view offline. This is in contrast to traditional pull technology, where the user must manually seek and find information on the World Wide Web. See also channel.


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RSACi - (Recreational Software Advisory Council on the Internet)
Rating system managed by ICRA (Internet Content Rating Association) to provide consumers with information about the level of sex, nudity, violence, offensive language (vulgar or hate-motivated) in Web sites. Ratings provided by RSACi are recognized by PICS technology.

RTP (Real-Time Transfer Protocol)
A protocol that provides support for applications with real-time properties, including timing construction, loss detection, and security and content-identification.

Real Time
At the same time, simultaneously. An event where two or more people communicate simultaneously, similar to the way people speak on a telephone at the same time. This is in contrast to time-shifting, where one person leaves a message and the other person responds later.

Rich
Formatting that allows the viewer to read underlined, bold, italics, colored text, and different sizes and type styles.


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Script
A script is a type of programming language that can be used to fetch and display Web pages. There are may kinds and uses of scripts on the Web. They can be used to create all or part of a page, and communicate with searchable databases. Forms (boxes) and many interactive links, which respond differently depending on what you enter, all require some kind of script language.

Search Engine
A tool that enables users to locate information on the World Wide Web. Search engines use keywords entered by users to find Web sites which contain the information sought. Some search engines are specifically designed to find Web sites intended for children.

Secondary Use
Refers to using personal information collected for one purpose for a second, unrelated purpose.

Server
Computer hardware and software that is attached to a network and which automatically stores, processes, and transmits data or information that is generally accessed by many people using client programs. A standard language is used to define this client-server interaction.

Server-Side
Something that operates on the "server" computer (providing the Web page), as opposed to the "client" computer (which is you or someone else viewing the Web page). Usually it is a program or command or procedure or other application causes dynamic pages or animation or other interaction.

Session Cookies
Cookies that do not have a specific expiration time and are discarded when the browser is closed.

Shareware
Copyrighted software that is distributed over the Internet or from one satisfied user to another user. No fee is charged for trying the program, but the user is expected to pay a donation to the owner and tell others about the program if he or she continues to use it.

Site or Web-Site
This term is often used to mean "web page," but there is supposed to be a difference. A web page is a single entity, one URL, one file that you might find on the Web. A "site," properly speaking, is an location or gathering or center for a bunch of related pages linked to from that site.

SMTP(Standard Mail Transfer Protocol )
The standard mail protocol for sending email over intranets and the Internet.

Spam
Unsolicited "junk" e-mail sent to large numbers of people to promote products or services. Sexually explicit unsolicited e-mail is called "porn spam." Also refers to inappropriate promotional or commercial postings to discussion groups or bulletin boards.

Spider
A software program that "crawls" the Web, searching and indexing Web pages to create a database that can be easily searched by a search engine.

Sponsor
Many Web pages have organizations, businesses, institutions like universities or nonprofit foundations, or other interests which "sponsor" the page. Frequently you can find a link titled "Sponsors" or an "About us" link explaining who or what (if anyone) is sponsoring the page. Sometimes the advertisers on the page (banner ads, links, buttons to sites that sell or promote something) are "sponsors." WHY is this important? Sponsors and the funding they provide may, or may not, influence what can be said on the page or site -- can bias what you find, by excluding some opposing viewpoint or causing some other imbalanced information. The site is not bad because of sponsors, but you they should alert you to the need to evaluate a page or site very carefully.

SSI commands
SSI stands for "server-side include," a type of HTML instruction telling a computer that serves Web pages to dynamically generate data, usually by inserting certain variable contents into a fixed template or boilerplate Web page. Used especially in database searches.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
A high-level security protocol for protecting the confidentiality and security of data while it is being transmitted through the Internet. Used by most commerce servers on the World Wide Web. Based on RSA Data Security's public-key cryptography, SSL is an open protocol that has been submitted to several industry groups as the industry security standard. Denoted by the letters HTTPS in the URL.

Stemming
In keyword searching, word endings are automatically removed (lines becomes line); searches are performed on the stem + common endings (line or lines retrieves line, lines, line's, lines', lining, lined). Not very common as a practice, and not always disclosed. Can usually be avoided by placing a term in " ".

Subject-Based Popularity Ranking of search results
A variation on popularity ranking in which the links in pages on the same subject are used to in ranking search results.

Sub-Searching
Ability to search only within the results of a previous search. Enables you to refine search results, in effect making the computer "read" the search results for you selecting documents with terms you sub-search on.

Subscription Data
Subscription data is the information that you provide to an online service when you sign up to become a member. Subscription data usually includes your name, physical address, email address, billing information, and telephone numbers.

Surf
To search for information on the Web in a random, non-linear way.

Scroll
Moving up or down within a document in your screen.


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TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
The protocols, or conventions, that computers use to communicate over the Internet.

Telnet
A program used by webmasters to communicate with UNIX servers.

Third Party Cookies
Cookies placed on the user's computer by any domain other than the host of the Web site the user is visiting. Third party cookies could be used for a variety of functions, including graphics, charts or tables, articles, or advertising on the Web page the users are visiting.

Time limiting software
Software that allows users to set time limits for access to the Internet, computer games, or other software programs.

Trojans
Programs designed to allow third parties unauthorized access to the computer systems they infect. Trojans may also be used in order to exploit a computer system to send unsolicited email.

TRUSTe
An online seal program. Web sites which display the seal have agreed to abide with certain principles regarding user privacy. A user can access the site's privacy policy by clicking on the seal.

Trustmark
An online seal awarded by TRUSTe to Web sites that agree to post privacy statements which describe their policies toward user privacy, and to adhere to procedures that enforce their compliance with the published privacy policy. A user can access the privacy statement by clicking on the TRUSTe trustmark.


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URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The unique address of any Web document. This term has recently been superseded by URI, or Uniform Resource Identifier. Also known as an Internet address or web address. Anatomy of a URL:
Type of file (http://, ftp://, telnet://) Domain name (computer file is on and its location on the Internet) Path or directory on the computer to this file Name of file, and its file extension (usually ending in .html or .htm)

Usenet
Bulletinboard-like network featuring thousands of "newsgroups." For more information see the Beyond General Web Searching discussion group section.

Upload
To send a copy of a file from a client to a server using a modem.

User-Friendly Newsgroup Names
Instead of using traditional cryptic naming conventions, such as "mcom.airius.design4000," user-friendly newsgroup names let users use real-life titles for their discussion groups, such as "Arius 4000 Design Issues."


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Virus
A program that is loaded onto your computer unbeknownst to you. Viruses can make copies of themselves, quickly using up all available memory. Some viruses can transmit themselves across networks.


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Web - The World Wide Web
An Internet system to distribute graphical, hyper-linked information, based on the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP). The World Wide Web is also known as WWW or W3. The Web is not synonymous with the Internet; rather, it is just one service on the Internet. Other services on the Internet include Internet Relay Chat and Newsgroups. The Web is accessed through use of a browser.

Web-based chat
Chat rooms that are found in Web sites, which allow people to chat with each other using their browsers. Another kind of chat room, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), requires additional software. (See also "Chat room," and "IRC")

Web-based e-mail
A technology that allows users to send and receive e-mail using only a browser, rather than using an e-mail program.

Web-based instant-messaging
Instant-messaging technology that works in Web sites, as opposed to that provided by commercial online services. (See also "Instant messaging")

Web Browser
A software application used to make navigating the Internet easy for the user by providing a graphical user interface (or GUI) so the user can click menus, icons, or buttons rather than learning difficult computer commands. Also called a web client because the browser application resides on the client, or the computer of the individual using it, rather than residing on a web server.

Web Host
A company that allows individuals or other companies to use their server space to host web sites.

Web Page
A single document on the World Wide Web that is specified by a unique address or URL and that contains text, hyperlinks, and graphics.

Web Server
Computer hardware where web pages are stored and accessed by others using web client software, or the computer software that allows the user to access the web pages. See also server.

Web Site
A group of similar web pages linked by hyperlinks and managed by a single company, organization, or individual. A web site may include text, graphics, audio and video files, and hyperlinks to other web pages.

Webmaster
The person responsible for administering a Web site.

Whitelist
A list of 'good' email addresses or Web sites. Some filters are/can be configured to only accept email or allow access to Web sites from the whitelist. A whitelist can also be used to create exceptions to the rules that filter out "bad" addresses and sites.

Window
Enclosed rectangular space on a computer screen, often used on our site to refer to the browser window for the display of a website.

Worm
A program that reproduces itself over a network, usually performing malicious actions, such as using up the computer's resources and possibly shutting the system down.

WWW or W3: World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is sometimes considered the graphical interface for the Internet, which is the network itself. Sometimes the web sites and their pages are called the World Wide Web. Often the two terms WWW and Internet are used interchangeably. Also know as the web. A portion of the Internet that is composed of web servers that provide access to web sites and web documents. The most important feature of the WWW is its inherent ability to link to any other part of the web. These links are sometimes called hyperlinks.

WYSIWYG
What you see is what you get. To display a document being edited exactly the same way it will be displayed on the web or in print.


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XHTML
A variant of HTML. Stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language is a hybrid between HTML and XML that is more universally acceptable in Web pages and search engines than XML.

XML
Extensible Markup Language, a dilution for Web page use of SGML (Standard General Markup Language), which is not readily viewable in ordinary browsers and is difficult to apply to Web pages. XML is very useful (among other things) for pages emerging from databases and other applications where parts of the page are standardized and must reappear many times.


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AVRSB Copyright
2005 AVRSB Technology Services
©2005 AVRSB Technology Services